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All countries in the EU have committed to the Kyoto Protocol , and the European Union is one of its biggest proponents. The European Commission published proposals for the first comprehensive EU energy policy on 10 January The European Union's member states are the birthplace of many of the world's largest leading multinational companies , and home to its global headquarters.
Anheuser-Busch InBev is the largest beer company in the world; L'Oréal Group , which is the world's largest cosmetics and beauty company; LVMH , which is the world's largest luxury goods conglomerate; Nokia Corporation , which was the world's largest manufacturer of mobile telephones ; Royal Dutch Shell , which is one of the largest energy corporations in the world; and Stora Enso , which is the world's largest pulp and paper manufacturer in terms of production capacity, in terms of banking and finance the EU has some of the worlds largest notably HSBC and Grupo Santander , the largest bank in Europe in terms of Market Capitalisation.
Many other European companies rank among the world's largest companies in terms of turnover, profit, market share, number of employees or other major indicators. A considerable number of EU-based companies are ranked among the worlds' top-ten within their sector of activity. The following is a list of the largest EU based stock market listed companies in The twelve new member states of the European Union have enjoyed a higher average percentage growth rate than their elder members of the EU.
Reasons for this growth include government commitments to stable monetary policy , export-oriented trade policies, low flat-tax rates and the utilisation of relatively cheap labour. The current map of EU growth is one of huge regional variation, with the larger economies suffering from stagnant growth and the new nations enjoying sustained, robust economic growth.
Although EU28 GDP is on the increase, the percentage of gross world product is decreasing because of the emergence of economies such as China, India and Brazil.
The EU seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was 6. The following table shows the history of the unemployment rate for all European Union member states:. The European Union is the largest exporter in the world  and as of the largest importer of goods and services. In the eurozone , trade is helped by not having any currency differences to deal with amongst most members.
The European Union Association Agreement does something similar for a much larger range of countries, partly as a so-called soft approach 'a carrot instead of a stick' to influence the politics in those countries.
When the EU negotiates trade related agreement outside the WTO framework, the subsequent agreement must be approved by each individual EU member. Comparing the richest areas of the EU can be a difficult task. An extreme example is Finland, which is divided for historical reasons into mainland Finland with 5. One problem with this data is that some areas, including Greater London , are subject to a large number of commuters coming into the area, thereby artificially inflating the figures.
It has the effect of raising GDP but not altering the number of people living in the area, inflating the GDP per capita figure. Similar problems can be produced by a large number of tourists visiting the area. The data is used to define regions that are supported with financial aid in programs such as the European Regional Development Fund.
Regions of the European Union. Prague and Bratislava are the only ones in the 13 new member states that joined in May , January and July Figures for these three regions, however, are artificially inflated by the commuters who do not reside in these regions "Net commuter inflows in these regions push up production to a level that could not be achieved by the resident active population on its own. The result is that GDP per inhabitant appears to be overestimated in these regions and underestimated in regions with commuter outflows.
Another example of artificial inflation is Groningen. The calculated GDP per capita is very high because of the large natural gas reserves in this region, but Groningen is one of the poorest parts in the Netherlands. Among the ten lowest regions in the ranking in most were in Bulgaria, with the lowest figure recorded in Severozapaden. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Population below poverty line. Ferrous non-ferrous metal metal products petroleum coal cement chemicals pharmaceuticals aerospace railway equipment automobile construction equipment industrial equipment shipbuilding electrical equipment machine tools automated systems electronics telecommunications equipment fishing food and beverages furniture paper textiles .
Net international investment position. Budget of the European Union. Energy policy of the European Union. Renewable energy in the European Union and Category: Energy in the European Union. List of companies of the European Union. List of largest companies by revenue. List of the largest trading partners of the European Union. Retrieved 22 December Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 13 October Retrieved 2 December Retrieved 10 July Retrieved 15 October Retrieved 12 October Retrieved 25 July Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 8 December Retrieved 14 October Europa, EU information website.
Archived from the original on 19 October Retrieved 6 November Retrieved 22 March Retrieved 7 March European Commission - European Commission. Regarding Capital Markets Union, the European Commission's plan to improve access to non-bank financing across the EU, he said the "departure of the UK makes this project even more important and even more urgent.
Retrieved 2 March Retrieved 23 May Financial Programming and Budget. Retrieved 15 September See Who Made It". Retrieved 7 September As with any form of investment there are disadvantages and advantages of participating. As it is important to understand the jargon. The major Forex currency pairs and their nicknames are: The best online Forex brokers quote the exchange rate of two currencies in a pair.
This is because in any Forex trading transaction, one currency is being bought, while another is being sold. While the second currency, the US Dollar, is the counter or quote currency. If you decide to buy this particular currency pair, it clearly indicates how much of the quote currency USD is required to buy one unit of the base currency EUR. In the above example, 1. If you sell the currency pair, you will receive 1. If you want an easy way to remember the principle think of the base currency as the basis for the trade.
Whether you are buying or selling a currency pair the base currency is always the same. In other words, it is always based on the first currency in the pair. The whole point behind Forex trading, is to buy a currency pair if you consider the base currency will increase in value appreciate , in relation to the quote currency.
If you think the base currency will decrease depreciate in value in relation to the quote currency, then you should choose to sell the pair. Some of you reading this will find this section a little boring. We appreciate that not everyone will want to know about the history. But we consider it an important part of your Forex journey. The foreign exchange market, or Forex, FX, or currency market, as it now often known, refers to a global decentralized market in which currencies are traded.
Under this heading are all aspects of buying, selling, and exchanging different currencies at a current or predetermined price. Currencies have been traded across the globe for centuries, but one of the most important events in the history of the Forex market happened in the s, when the gold standard was introduced.
Before its introduction it would generally have been gold and silver that were used for international payment. The value of these two metals was very much up and down. And were affected by global supply and demand. If a new gold mine was discovered it would drive the price of gold down. The gold standard was introduced so that governments could guarantee the conversion of a currency into a specified amount of gold, and vice versa. A currencythat would be backed by gold, and should have stabilized world currencies, sounds a pretty good idea in theory.
The gold standard was dropped, but gold as a precious metal never lost its importance as a form of monetary value. Towards the end of World War II, Allied nations found there was a need for a monetary system to fill the void left by the loss of the gold standard. The reason for the gathering was to iron out the details of a new international monetary system. They decided to call it the Bretton Woods system. The main part of this new system was for the US dollar to replace gold as the standard used for converting world currencies.
It also led to the US dollar being the only world currency backed by gold, at that time. It also created three agencies that would oversee economic activity across the globe. However, this system suffered a number of problems. These included the US Treasury running low on its gold reserves, and not having enough gold to cover all the US dollars foreign central banks had in their reserves.
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