I know that sli has no improvement for deep learning, but what if I disable the sli and use 2 m instead? Pelepasan yang tu kena tengok banyak perkara. There were numerous posts from people in Texas about this.
In the midth-century, Aalborg was overtaken by Aarhus as the largest city in Jutland. Towards the end of the 19th century there was however an upturn. In , the pontoon bridge over Limfjord was completed, and in , the railway reached the city with a railway bridge over the sound to Vendsyssel three years later. Around the beginning of the 20th century, as a result of decisions taken by the municipality, many of the city's half-timbered houses were torn down.
They were replaced by hundreds of modern buildings, completely changing the look of the city. Factories with smoking chimneys became ever more prevalent in the outskirts. Obel 's tobacco factory established in Aalborg Portland run by F. Smidth was one of several cement factories operating in , together employing some workers. The port facilities were also improved with the help of a dredger and the opening of new docks. In , Christian X inaugurated a new bridge over Limfjord to replace the fragile pontoon crossing.
Aalborg Airport, officially opened in because of the success of the cement industry, had in fact operated flights to Copenhagen since By , Aalborg had become known as the "city of smoking chimneys" with half of the inhabitants working in industry or manufacturing.
The significance of Aalborg's industry began to decline in the s, precipitating a fall in the city's population until about when it again began to increase. By the year , the service and education sectors accounted for about 60 percent of the workforce, partly as a result of the founding of Aalborg University in The telecommunications and information technology sector has developed with the support of Aalborg University and the North Jutland knowledge park NOVI.
It adopted the Aalborg Charter , which provides a framework for the delivery of local sustainable development and calls on local authorities to engage in Local Agenda 21 processes. The commitments have now been signed by local authorities while over 2, have signed the earlier Aalborg Charter. Klarup and Storvorde lie to the southeast along the road,  which, flanking a stretch of the Limfjord known as Langerak, leads to the town of Hals.
The Nibe Broads Nibe Bredning in the Limfjord not only has the largest eelgrass belts in Danish waters but is an important sanctuary for thousands of migratory birds. Despite effective drainage, the main streets, including Algade, still run east to west while the side streets run north to south.
The Budolfi Church and the old town hall line Gammeltorv, the old market square. The main shopping streets are Algade and Bispengade, the latter lying inbetween the modern Vesterbro thoroughfare and Nytorv square. The city cemetery, the Kilden park and the modern art museum, Kunsten, are in the modern commercial and administrative area around the railway station to the west.
Beyond this, Hasseris has become a residential district with a number of large villas and detached houses. The waterfront to the northeast of the centre is being transformed from a harbour into a recreational area with the Utzon Center and Musikkens Hus. Off the northwestern side of the city in the sound is the island of Egholm , reached via ferry.
The island, with a population of 55 as of [update] , covers an area of 6. Dikes have been built along the coastline to protect the island from flooding. There are several man-made lakes nearby: Mark's Church on the eastern side. Fifty-one species of bird have been recorded in the park.
The park is also used by the Nordjysk Windsurfing Club and has a six-hole golf course. Aalborg has a number of additional civic parks and recreational facilities. The Aalborg Zoo was opened in and typically houses 1, animals from different species, including tigers , chimpanzees , zebra , elephants , giraffes , penguins and polar bears. Aalborg was home to an amusement park, Karolinelund , founded in In , still owned by the founding family, it was sold to an entrepreneur who resold it to the city the following year.
When the park closed in , it was home to 17 attractions. Recently, the city has reopened the park to volunteers who wish to return it to operating status.
The park is once again open to the public as a leisure facility but without rides and attractions. Volunteers frequently arrange seminars, exhibitions, films, music concerts, and more which are open to the public. Jensen , a Social Democrat , was the long-serving Mayor of Aalborg from until The civic government in Aalborg consists of seven departments: Aalborg City Council consists of 31 members, including a mayor.
As of September , 11 of the council seats are held by the Social Democratic Party , nine by Venstre , three by the Socialist People's Party , two by the Danish People's Party , and two by the Conservative People's Party , while three members are professed independents.
Aalborg was the largest city in Jutland until it was surpassed by Aarhus in the midth century. Dramatic growth began in the late 19th century, with an increase from 14, in to 31, in In , it reached 87,, which grew to , by Aalborg is North Jutland 's major industrial and commercial centre, exporting grain , cement , and spirits. Many of the factories have now closed, to be replaced by developments in the knowledge-based and green-energy sectors.
In the s, the city is set on increasing its participation in the global economy through both existing companies and new entrants.
Its efforts are focused on four areas: Tourism is also growing, with a considerable rise in the number of passengers at Aalborg Airport. Aalborg Municipality has Denmark's second highest revenue from tourism and is the only municipality in the north of Denmark where overnight stays are increasing.
Telenor Denmark , part of the Norwegian Telenor telecommunications and mobile phone company, has a workforce of about 1, in Aalborg, making it one of the city's largest new employers. In and , there were additions in both areas. The new testing plant is the world's largest research test centre for wind turbine technology. Aalborg was home to De Danske Spritfabrikker or Danish Distillers now owned by the Norwegian company Arcus , which produces numerous brands of akvavit , until Employing 2, people, in December it was acquired by the Swedish Alfa Laval , also a specialist in the area.
Today it is the world's largest supplier of white cement, which it exports around the globe. Aalborg has a wide selection of shops and restaurants. In the city centre, there are both large department stores and smaller speciality shops. One of the largest shopping malls in Denmark, the Aalborg Storcenter , is to the south of the city in Skalborg. It has about 75 stores, including a large Bilka supermarket. Aalborg has 12 large hotels, most within walking distance of the city centre.
Despite its industrial background and the factories along its waterfront, the city has gained popularity for tourism in recent years, offering a wide variety of attractions and historic buildings in addition to its museums, churches and parks.
Jens Bang's House Danish: Built in by the Aalborg merchant Jens Bang in the Dutch Renaissance style, the four-story sandstone building is noted for its rising gables and sculpted auricular window decorations.
For over years, it has housed the city's oldest pharmacy. Built mainly of sandstone in , it also has a half-timbered section. The style is reminiscent of similar buildings in the north of Germany and in the Netherlands. Olufsen, Jens Bang's half brother, was not only a successful merchant but also mayor of Aalborg. The old iron bar with a hook for scales can be seen in the portico. Aalborghus Castle Aalborghus Slot is a half-timbered building with red-painted woodwork and whitewashed wall panels.
It was built in the midth century by King Christian III for his vassals who collected taxes and is the only remaining example of its kind in the country. Aalborg's old city hall in Gammeltorv, in service until , was built in It is now only used for ceremonial and representative purposes. Designed in the Late Baroque style, the building with its black-glazed tile roof consists of two storeys and a cellar.
The yellow-washed façade is decorated with white pilasters and a frontispiece featuring the Danish coat of arms and a bust of King Frederick V. His motto, Prudentia et Constantia , is also seen above the main entrance.
The building was listed by the Danish Heritage Agency in It is now used as a centre for arts and crafts. Completed in by the architect Alf Cock-Clausen , it combines functionality with decorative classical symbolism. Considered a masterpiece of Danish factory design, it is now a Danish National Heritage site. Popular for its cafés and restaurants during the day, it is even busier at night with its clubs, discos and bars. During the s, the street was infamously a 'hang out' of two biker gangs who were at war for some years all over Scandinavia.
As the bikers disappeared it became increasingly popular for people of all ages. Kennedy Square in the central city area are also part of the cityscape. Born in Copenhagen , Utzon grew up in Aalborg. The centre contains an exhibition on Utzon's work, which includes the Sydney Opera House , as well as educational displays on architecture and design. The tall sculptural roofs of the auditorium and the boat-hall, both on the harbour front, and the library facing the park area and the city are set off by the lower roofs of the exhibition and workshop areas inside the complex.
The annual Aalborg Carnival usually takes place in the last weekend of May. Attracting about , visitors, it is the biggest carnival in Scandinavia and one of the largest in northern Europe. The city hosted the world's largest event for sailing vessels again in and , and will do so for the fourth time in less than two decades when The Tall Ships Races visits Aalborg in early August The centre's main component, the Aalborg Hall, can be divided into sections.
The complex also contains a hotel, restaurant, bowling alley, and a number of meeting rooms. The smaller Europahallen was added in , making the centre the largest in Scandinavia. Ölpreis von Dollar unwahrscheinlich Keine Risikoaversion zum Wochenstart Eurokurs leicht erholt von starken Vortagsverlusten Eurokurs erholt sich von starken Vortagesverlusten Euro stabilisiert sich nach starken Vortagesverlusten Eigenmietwert-Abschaffung hätte kaum Einfluss auf Hauspreise Staatsanleihekäufe gehen nicht über EZB-Mandat hinaus.
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Fifa von russischen Hackern ausspioniert. Irland startet Untersuchung gegen Facebook. Avis de rappel d'aliments - Rappel de certains produits de légumes emballés de marque Sobeys en raison de la bactérie Listeria monocytogenes. Food Recall Warning - Certain Sobeys brand packaged vegetable products recalled due to Listeria monocytogenes. LafargeHolcim - Chance auf Kaufsignal. Indiens Konjunktur so stark wie seit zwei Jahren nicht mehr.
Zentralbanken unterstützen die Märkte weiter kräftig. Japans Wirtschaft stärker als gedacht. Schwellenländer weiter mit Wachstumsvorsprung. Ölpreis von Dollar unwahrscheinlich. US-Rohöllagerbestände steigen weitaus deutlicher als erwartet. Ausländische Autohersteller wollen Tauschprämien für Diesel anbieten. Andrew, that is a question I was asked again and again and I think I will write a dedicated blog post for this topic.
To give good advice for what to read and how to proceed towards understanding and application of deep learning one needs to know a persons background computer science, math, other science, business, etc. Generally however, one can get started quite easily by first going through this cousera course followed by a read through the deeplearning. This path is particular helpful if you are trying to understand deep learning and aim for doing deep learning research. If you want to merely apply deep learning, this path is too unpractical and one needs to choose a different path.
I will try to get an blog post online which clarifies these other paths. Hi Tim, what about the practical approach? This is a good question and I think about writing a blog post about it, but because I am a bit short of time right now, I think that blog post would be only happen in a month or so — so I give you a short answer here.
It all depends what you want to do and what you exactly mean with practical. When you study deep learning in a research setting it can also be highly practical, but I assume that you mean practical in the sense of using deep learning for practical projects in industry. If this is so then I would go along these steps:. Read some practical guides on training deep learning 2.
Work on some past deep learning Kaggle competitions and figure it out, how to get a okay score its perfectly alright if you do not score well at this point 3. Read Kaggle forums and blog posts about the winning deep learning solutions in these deep learning competitions 4. Try to imitate 3. Read academic papers of state of the art solutions and repeat 5. Read winning Kaggle forum posts of past Kaggle competitions 2.
Play around in competitions, try to apply everything that you read these competitions can be old or new 3. Enter new competitions and try to score well; try to focus on one competition at a time and do well there 5. Collaborate with other competitors that are better than you are and learn from them. Both approaches should take you about years if you work everyday for a bit.
It is a though journey, but if you persist you should be an expert in practical application by the end of this. My main interest was to identify the bottlenecks in hardware and software in a multi-node system, so that I could write deep learning software that scales for very large systems with thousands of servers — that would not be possible to study with a single machine.
I am not sure I understood which software you did use. Or you coded stuff yourself? Thanks for your comment Atcold. I coded the stuff myself to get a better understanding of the bottlenecks for computing with multiple GPUs and a GPU cluster.
It is rather difficult to understand the low level details when one starts with a larger frameworks as Torch7 or Caffè. Developing a POS tagger for Indian language is a very interesting problem. I aim to work on similar problems myself in the near future. If I have any results I will post them here on my blog. Is this strictly the FDR Infiniband? I have seen people get to work RDMA under different cards, but there are no guarantees and it can be very difficult to get it to run properly.
Tim, thanks so much! I have been scouring ebay and reading as much as I can. I am trying to avoid as many of the software complexities as I can, so just trying to find the most compatible hardware to hopefully alleviate as many headaches as possible.
In terms of a switch…do you think any QDR switch will do? A switch is another big investment, indeed! I thought about creating a cluster with more nodes, a switch and smaller GPUs, but the switch was so expensive that a two node cluster with fast GPUs was the better option for me.
Also I say them sometimes quite cheap on eBay, so it is worth to check frequenctly for that. You might want to start with two nodes, and extend your system once you snatched a cheap switch off of eBay.
Another thing I did not think before building my system is using cards with two Infiniband slots. I am not sure how it works on a software level, but two ports means two times the bandwidth on a physical level, and I am sure that will translate in similar bandwidth increases on the software level. Maybe you can look into that also. Infiniband is only useful if you use more than one computer; it is basically the same as a ethernet connection between computers, only quite a bit faster 2.
Get 4 GPUs in a single computer: A 8 GPU cluster is a lot of more work to get and keep it running; you will need special software you cannot use theano or torch for that and the system needs to be tweaked in detail.
Thus 4 GPUs is the cheapest, most easiest to use and most practical solution. So get a 4 GPU system. However, you might want to build a smaller system instead and save up your money for the Pascal GPUs which will come in late These GPUs will make all those that did come before them look silly. Make sure that you have selected all the GPUs you want in your. Yeah, I was a bit shocked when I saw the FDR switch costs…but I guess like all good computing tools…over time their prices will plummet like a rock: Not comforting in the immediate term though.
I really wanted to try and build something scalable…. Power and electricity becomes a problem relatively quickly for something like this. Thanks for all your help! And officially it is only availble for Quadro and Tesla hardware.
I guess it might be a driver limitation, and eventually it could work when modding the GPU to advertise itself as a Quadro device, ….
I think for me was the trick to install nvidia peer driver, a beta Mellanox driver for Kepler cards. Hi Tim, Thanks for the informative post. I am wondering what mother-board you used? Most motherboards will do. My other computer uses a Gigabyte Ultra Durable 5 which is okay and works just fine. I saw hacks where people could get it working on even older hardware, but there will be more difficulties I presume. Any combination of Kepler card and ConnectX-2 card should work with some tinkering.
Thanks a lot for the information. Which OS are you using? You should definitely use a Linux based operating system like red hat server I think this is officially supported or ubuntu I used ubuntu. Installation can be difficult and there is no easy recipe.
I needed many days to get everything running. You might find parts of the solutions on other blogs and forum posts; Google is your friend here. The biggest hurdle for me was to get the Infiniband cards correctly identified by the software; after that I changed the system step by step with the benchmarks and stopped when it was working. Also, Tesla is a bit expensive. Will it be a better decision to get Quadros again this time? Will it be better to just get one GPU to add on the existing machine, instead of getting two GPUs on a separate machine?
And if the latter is better, is Mellanox ConnectX-3 the fastest one or the most recommended and how many cards do we need to connect two stations? I read on your post too that we need fiber cables…. Of course the K40 is the best GPU, but it is not very cost efficient. It has high double precision FLOPS and memory correction — both expensive features which are not needed for deep learning. That GPU should be much faster than the K40 and much cheaper.
Another Quadro will be a good choice to prototype the system one GPU for each computer until you figured everything out, then buy new Titan Xs.
If the new EDR cards work it will be a huge step for deep learning, but I guess those cards will be expensive and the switch even more so. I never worked with double port cards; if one can get them working this would also be a huge improvement — so maybe you should look into that.
As long as the card is ConnectX-3 or better you will be fine. You can use copper cable, if your computers are not too far apart less than a few meters ; if they are further apart you will need fiber optic cables. GPUs per computer is a difficult question. It all depends if you can keep them cool and what your mainboard can hold.
Thanks for the fast reply! Really grateful for all the help. I have a few follow-up questions and clarifications, though. Will this be able to hold 3 GPUs in one computer?
Or will we have to see for ourselves if the 3-GPU set-up can stay cool enough? Our budget is only until this month, and we also have to order them as soon as possible… So as I understand it, for a two computer set-up, it will be: Thank you so much for that! Dual CPU mainboards can be complicated. However, I think you will be limited in PCIe x16 slots. If you have to order quickly the best choices are: So if we are to use that, we can only buy Quadros now, right?
Yes, I have been a bit unclear on that. That hurts a bit, because Quadros are not cheap, but on the bottom line you will have a cheaper and more powerful system this way which has less memory of course than 6 Quadros would have; but again 4 additional Quadros are more expensive than 6 Titan Blacks.
Thank you so much for all the recommendations! I just found out from my colleague that Titan Blacks have been discontinued already? I looked for it on amazon, and there are only 1 or 2 new pieces available. I did not know that it was so difficult to get a handle on Titan Blacks. That is a tough decision you have to make there, but I would probably would go for the GTXs if available.
Such a system would also be easier to upgrade than a system of Quadros. However, if you aim to train really, really large convolutional nets the Quadros might indeed be the better choice.
But I bet that will be an impressive system either way! Once again, thank you so much for all the help, Tim! I will be watching out for your new updates for sure! Do you think the choice of a CPU matters that much? The CPU choice can be complex, but I will post a new blog entry in the next days which will deal exactly with this topic — so stay tuned!
I am a beginner in the field of deep learning and I want to buy a laptop to try out some deep learning algorithms such as Convolution Nets, Neural Turing Machine and do some Kaggle projects. For now, I have some options: My room is too small for a desktop so a poweful laptop is my only option. It sure would be a lot easier to follow your recommendations if they were laid out in some sort of table maybe cost versus performance …or something like that.
Thanks for the feedback! I will try to make things clearer with an update. Here a simple algorithm how to find the best GPU. Generally, there are two questions you need to answer yourself: Then there is also eBay which makes things cheaper, but for newer GPUs the price difference is negligible, and so the algorithm above should most often yield the GPU that is best for you. Specifically the list of both hardware and software?
This is the best 4 GPU system, but by far also the most expensive one. I have a core I7 Win 7 laptop I could perhaps install and learn to use the software; yet, I am not sure on the software packages as there are many.
I think you mentioned Red Hat and the Nvidia devbox software list mentions Ubuntau plus other apps like Theano, Torch, etc. I want to make the best choice but the details are fuzzy. During my learning of the software and algorithms on the laptop I would begin building the new machine. I would use Torch7 and ubuntu It is not only the most productive setup that there is at the moment, but probably also the easiest to use and the one with the most features.
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